Special Studies: Cold Extremities

This is a common symptom for both ME/CFS and Long COVID. This is reported often in samples, and thus being examined if it reaches our threshold for inclusion as defined in A new specialized selection of suggestions links. It does.

My default view is that this symptom is likely due to vesicular constriction/inflammation or “stick blood” (which contains many coagulation possibilities) resulting in low warming blood flow.

Study Populations:

Sleep: Unrefreshed Sleep108778
  • Bacteria Detected with z-score > 2.6: found 145 items, highest value was 12.6
  • Enzymes Detected with z-score > 2.6: found 170 items, highest value was 5.3
  • Compound Detected with z-score > 2.6: found No items

The highest z-scores above are more than most other symptoms. This indicates that the causes are more homogeneous bacteria shifts.

For those with uploaded microbiome

Interesting Significant Bacteria

All bacteria found significant had too low levels. The dominant genus is Prevotella with the P.Copri being usually 90% of the genus count in our reference, but only 14% of the genus count with Cold Extremities indicating that the shift is very species specific. Looking at Prevotella copri in isolation, we see the best documented ways of increasing it are: mediterranean diet, resveratrol (grape seed/polyphenols/red wine), berberine, navy bean,  Conjugated Linoleic Acid and linseed(flaxseed).

It is interesting to note that some of these are known to improve coagulation or reduces inflammation

BacteriaReference MeanStudyZ-Score
Prevotella copri (species)66900309012.6
Prevotella (genus)74698212937.6
Prevotellaceae (family)82172366086.1
Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense PV20-2 (strain)326785.9
Bifidobacterium catenulatum subsp. kashiwanohense (subspecies)317785.8
Sporolactobacillaceae (family)173585.7
Thermosediminibacterales (order)48185.7
Sporolactobacillus (genus)174605.5
Sporolactobacillus putidus (species)174605.5
Bifidobacterium gallicum (species)37847835.5
Lactiplantibacillus pentosus (species)123225.3
Phocaeicola coprocola (species)75846635

Interesting Enzymes

Most (99%) enzymes found significant had too low levels.

EnzymeReference MeanStudy MeanZ-Score
n/a (
2-acetylphloroglucinol C-acetyltransferase (
ATP:L-threonine O3-phosphotransferase (

Bottom Line

In this study, one species shouts out as the cause by not being there Prevotella copri. I would really emphasis the items listed above as encouraging its growth.

It may be available “soon” as a probiotic, “The gut bacterium Prevotella copri (P. copri) has been shown to lower blood glucose levels in mice as well as in healthy humans, and is a promising candidate for a next generation probiotic aiming at prevention or treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.” [2021]

This article is an interesting read: The Strange Case of Prevotella copri: Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hyde? Especially for those who think all bacteria can be classified as either good or bad.

In terms of retail probiotics suggested, the E.Coli probiotic, Symbioflor-2 is suggested.

To obtain a priori suggestions, go to https://microbiomeprescription.com/Library/CitizenScience

The a priori suggestions, shown below, contains the items for P. Copri cited above.

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