Supplements for COVID

This is a special, off topic post resulting from some readers request. It is particularly important in the face of Omicron.

As always, I use gold standard sources:

Off-Label use of some Prescription Medicine

  • Bacillus calmette-guerin [Tuberculosis] vaccination. [2021] decrease risk by 50%
  • “Despite some controversies, numerous studies have reported a significant association between the use of ACE inhibitors and reduced risk of COVID-19″ [2021]
    • “The results obtained from this study showed that RamiprilDelapril and Lisinopril could bind with ACE2 receptor and [SARS-CoV-2/ACE2] complex better” [2021] – these are often prescribed for high blood pressure and appear to drop the levels of ACE2 significantly within a week.


There is a mountain of speculation and few actual trials (Traditional medicines prescribed for prevention of COVID19: Use with caution.). Often the criteria to suggest something is the belief that the substance will improve the immune function. This is actually a two edge sword — a stronger immune response can make someone sicker. Herbal Immune Booster-Induced Liver Injury in the COVID-19 Pandemic – A Case Series [Dec 2021]. Other suggestions are based on treating symptoms like coagulation with serrapeptase — suggested but not tested. Others on their impact on  interleukins. virus titers, and interferon (IFN – for example from probiotics — again, suggested/speculated with no clinical trials.[See Probiotics Against Viruses; COVID-19 is a Paper Tiger: A Systematic Review [2021]

  • “The findings from our study suggest that zinc supplementation in all three doses (10, 25, and 50 mg) may be an effective prophylaxis of symptomatic COVID-19 and may mitigate the severity of COVID-19 infection. “[2021]
  • “This meta-analysis indicates a beneficial role of vitamin D supplementation on ICU admission, but not on mortality, of COVID-19 patients.” [2021]
    • ” There is no data from interventional trials clearly indicating that vitamin-D supplementation may prevent against COVID-19.” [Dec 2021]
  • “Evidence supporting the therapeutic use of HDICV(high-dose intravenous vitamin C) in COVID-19 patients is lacking.” [2021]
  • Withania somnifera [Ashwagandha] showed the highest binding affinity and best fit … may reduce the glycosylation of SARS-CoV-2 via interacting with Asn343 and inhibit viral replication. [2021]
    • Withania somnifera as a safer option to hydroxychloroquine in the chemoprophylaxis of COVID-19: Results of interim analysis [2021]
    • “. Overall, the simulation run confirms the stability and rigidity of the interactions of Withanolide R and 2,3‐Dihydrowithaferin A from Withania somnifera to be the most potent phytochemical inhibitor for the main protease and the spike protein respectively. ” [2020]
    • More studies
  • “The study found a reduced risk of COVID-19 infection in participants receiving neem(Azadirachta Indica A. Juss) capsules” [2021]

Items with In Vitro Evidence that it may help

Remember that In Vitro often fails to reproduce with humans.

After Infection

In theory, some of these items may slow the infection by slowing the mechanisms of the infection.

Bottom Line

If you find additional gold standard studies done on actual people, please forward them to me for inclusion on this page.

Rosacea, Circulation and mild CFS

Person Description

  • 32 year old male living in Scandinavia
  • Health problems started at 16 years(possible overtrainig).
  • Symptoms:
    • Every night my body collapses,
      • my nose gets extremely red (rosacea),
      • pulse rises and it feels strange in my body.
      • Delayed if does not eat dinner.
    • Feel very tired and can’t work out or even go short walks without getting tired (
      • mild CFS – diagnosed by a healthcare practitioner at 25 years
    • Brain fog.
    • Frozen/poor circulation in the body.
    • My body feels stressed,
    • Always feel and hear my pulse in the ears/head.
    • Problem with allergies/hypersensitivity to pollen, animals, strong fragrances, and against a lot of foods that I find difficult to identify.
    • Starting to get a lot of grey hair (none of my parents got grey hair in such a young age).
    • Diagnosed with SIBO 2 years ago.
    • Diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus 4 years ago. 

I have done a lot of different protocols but it none really help. Most beneficial for the red nose (rosacea) is eating a diet is consuming low meat, low fat, low starch and eat a lot of fruits, juices and smoothies.

Comment: My own experience dealing with a ME/CFS relapse was that they first test-change-retest cycles had little/slow progress (See my progress reports). He reported some positive change from the first cycle,

Microbiome Tests

First microbiome test in late August, 2021. Upload to Microbiome Prescription resulted in the following protocol:

  • Week 1-2: Rifaximin (as I understand you are not a fan of Rifaximin, but it was one of my top modifiers and I am also diagnosed with SIBO and have huge issues with rosacea on the nose). 
  • Week 3-4: HMOWeek
  • 5-6: Resveratrol, D-ribose (which I’m going to continue taking) and DAO.
  • Week 7-8: Symbioflor 2.

From this changes, he reported a little more energy, but no real progress with my rosacea. Biomesight is processing his second test – will be ready in 1-3 weeks.

He is able to get antibiotics prescribed and He is also willing to take antibiotics.



Rosacea is one of the conditions that I maintain in my US National Library of Medicine microbiome shifts list [rosacea]. The number of studies is few. In keeping with best practices (combining clinical studies with microbiome results) I checked Clinical Studies, I found Rosacea: Treatment targets based on new physiopathology data [Dec 7, 2021] lists “treatment targets and possible treatments:

  1. permanent vascular changes (medical and instrumental treatments);
  2. flushing (betablockers, botulinum toxin);
  3. innate immunity (antibiotics, nonspecific antioxidants and anti-inflammatory molecules);
  4. a neurovascular component (analgesics, antidepressants);
  5. Demodex (antiparasitic drugs);
  6. microbiome;
  7. skin barrier impairment (cosmetics and certain systemic drugs);
  8. sebaceous glands (isotretinoin, surgery);
  9. environmental factors (alcohol, coffee, UV exposure). “

So, approaching it via the microbiome is in agreement with latest clinical practice. We should be aware that “Frozen/poor circulation” and “vascular changes” hints at a possible co-factor.

  • “there is a lack of well-designed and controlled studies evaluating the causal relationship between rosacea and dietary factors.”  [2021]
  • “Rosacea is triggered by hot and spicy food” [2021]

Reviewing literatures for Treatments and Clinical Studies

  • Do not use metronidazole [2021]
  • Possible doxycycline 40 mg/day – ongoing [2021] [2015] [2009]
  • Minocycline 100 mg/day [2020]
  • Gamma Linolenic Acid 320 mg/day [2020]
  • “, mast cells (MCs) have emerged as key players in the pathogenesis of rosacea through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, proteases, and antimicrobial peptides’ [2021] – hints at DAO and mast cell stabilizers
  • silymarin/methylsulfonilmethane [2008]
  • “Only 17% of those with rosacea were impaired by sunlight, whereas 26% improved. In the rosacea group, “[1989] – hints at Vitamin D
    • “Serum vitamin D was lower in patients with rosacea” [2018]
    • “The present study suggests that an increase in vitamin D levels may contribute to the development of rosacea. ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms, and heterozygous Cdx2, wildtype ApaI and mutant TaqI alleles were significantly associated with rosacea.” [2018]
    • SHORT FORM: Positive or negative response to sunlight/vitamin D depends on DNA

Looking at Suggestions from 1st Analysis

For a starting point, I used Advanced Suggestions. NOTE: The database is constantly being updated so suggestions on the same sample may change over time.

The results include some high weight items that was not included in his protocol. I checked if there was any results from clinical studies for Rosacea that used probiotics — I could not find any, thus the use of probiotics in a novel treatment approach. mutaflor escherichia coli nissle 1917 (probiotics) was included in take (so Symbioflor-2 is a valid substitution)

It is interesting that  Lactobacillus casei and L. paracasei degrades histamines [Post 2021] which should improve allergies/hypersensitivity reported.

Please note that some probiotics are on the to-avoid list, including:

Dropping the Pub Med Filter for Rosacea, had some items that may impact circulation issues and mast cell issues positively:

Further Digging

The suspected cause being overtraining lead me to the shifts know to occur. The literature is below

Intensive, prolonged exercise seemingly causes gut dysbiosis in female endurance runners.
Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition (J Clin Biochem Nutr ) Vol: 68 Issue 3 Pages: 253-258
Pub: 2021 May Epub: 2020 Oct 31 Authors Morishima S , Aoi W , Kawamura A , Kawase T , Takagi T , Naito Y , Tsukahara T , Inoue R , 
Summary Html Article Publication
Rapid gut microbiome changes in a world-class ultramarathon runner.
Physiological reports (Physiol Rep ) Vol: 7 Issue 24 Pages: e14313
Pub: 2019 Dec Epub: Authors Grosicki GJ , Durk RP , Bagley JR , 
Summary Html Article Publication
Physiological and Biochemical Effects of Intrinsically High and Low Exercise Capacities Through Multiomics Approaches.
Frontiers in physiology (Front Physiol ) Vol: 10 Issue Pages: 1201
Pub: 2019 Epub: 2019 Sep 18 Authors Tung YT , Hsu YJ , Liao CC , Ho ST , Huang CC , Huang WC , 
Summary Html Article Publication
Improvement of non-invasive markers of NAFLD from an individualised, web-based exercise program.
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics (Aliment Pharmacol Ther ) Vol: 50 Issue 8 Pages: 930-939
Pub: 2019 Oct Epub: 2019 Jul 25 Authors Huber Y , Pfirrmann D , Gebhardt I , Labenz C , Gehrke N , Straub BK , Ruckes C , Bantel H , Belda E , Clément K , Leeming DJ , Karsdal MA , Galle PR , Simon P , Schattenberg JM ,
Summary Publication Publication
Home-based exercise training influences gut bacterial levels in multiple sclerosis.
Complementary therapies in clinical practice (Complement Ther Clin Pract ) Vol: 45 Issue Pages: 101463
Pub: 2021 Jul 30 Epub: 2021 Jul 30 Authors Mokhtarzade M , Molanouri Shamsi M , Abolhasani M , Bakhshi B , Sahraian MA , Quinn LS , Negaresh R , 
Summary Publication
Are nutrition and physical activity associated with gut microbiota? A pilot study on a sample of healthy young adults.
Annali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunita (Ann Ig ) Vol: 32 Issue 5 Pages: 521-527
Pub: 2020 Sep-Oct Epub: Authors Valeriani F , Gallè F , Cattaruzza MS , Antinozzi M , Gianfranceschi G , Postiglione N , Romano Spica V , Liguori G , 
Summary Publication
Effect of an 8-week Exercise Training on Gut Microbiota in Physically Inactive Older Women.
International journal of sports medicine (Int J Sports Med ) Vol: Issue Pages:
Pub: 2020 Dec 15 Epub: 2020 Dec 15 Authors Zhong F , Wen X , Yang M , Lai HY , Momma H , Cheng L , Sun X , Nagatomi R , Huang C , 
Summary Publication Publication
The influence of exercise training volume alterations on the gut microbiome in highly-trained middle-distance runners.
European journal of sport science (Eur J Sport Sci ) Vol: Issue Pages: 1-0
Pub: 2021 May 26 Epub: 2021 May 26 Authors Craven J , Cox AJ , Bellinger P , Desbrow B , Irwin C , Buchan J , McCartney D , Sabapathy S , 
Summary Publication
🍽🦠 PubMed Studies Citing Bacteria Shifts for [Exercise]

Although it was a long time ago for the over-exercising, I decided to see if some of the changes may have the appearance of long term persistence. Running the known shifts against the two samples, I was actually surprised to see the earlier test had far more matches to the literature than the last test. Some items dropped off and only one item was added. Given that he had been implementing suggestions between the two samples, the improvement is nice to see.

tax_nametax_rankEarly Test
Last Test
Akkermansia muciniphilaspecies0.85
Eubacteriales Family XIII. Incertae Sedisfamily14.756.56
Moorella groupno rank2.54
Prevotella biviaspecies75.47
Streptococcus australisspecies87.8783.60
Streptococcus thermophilusspecies83.16
Streptococcus vestibularisspecies75.94

Continuing this logical exercise, “What would be suggested if I keep my scope to counteracting only the shifts that may be ascribed to over-exercising?” This assumes that the over-exercised shift created a stable dysfunctional microbiome that persisted. To do this, I used my Biome View and hand picked the above items. Many of the items are also on the list above.

With one probiotic being well suggested (but likely difficult to get except by mail order). I included prescription items in the choices — none made it on the to add list, many appear on the to avoid list.

In terms of Flavonoids, Apples (I recall that at least 2 a day were needed from a study that I read recently) and Almonds (perhaps marzipan could work similarly… no studies, but given where he is, marzipan is definitely available)

Evaluating things tried

I recently added the ability to compare two samples in the light of taking some microbiome modifier (see this post for more details)

  • Week 1-2: Rifaximin (as I understand you are not a fan of Rifaximin, but it was one of my top modifiers and I am also diagnosed with SIBO and have huge issues with rosacea on the nose).  Results: AGREES 25, DIFFERS:23
  • Week 3-4: HMO Week AGREES: 62 DIFFERS:58
  • 5-6:
    • Resveratrol, AGREES: 45 DIFFERS:40
    • D-ribose (which I’m going to continue taking) AGREES: 6.2 DIFFERS:2.4
    • DAO (Nothing in database)
  • Week 7-8: Symbioflor 2. AGREES 0.5 DIFFERS:4.6
    • I decided to checked Mutaflor (it’s siblings) AGREES 4.1 DIFFERS 2.4

The goal of this website has always been “Better suggestions than random suggestions”. In our review above, we found that AGREES > DIFFERS except for Symbioflor-2. The shifts seen more typical for Mutaflor (E.Coli Nissle 1917 probiotic). What I found most interesting was that the modifier that the reader has decided to continue, d-ribose, was also the one with the best ratio between Agrees/Differ. D-ribose has been documented to improve ME/CFS and FM (see this post for study links)

I was pleased to see almost every modifier had positive impact, but wish the amount was more.

Other Threads?

There is a tendency to try to fix everything at one time. My preference is to focus always on one to two items between tests. We have two threads — Rosacea and Over-exercising. Suggestions are similar and I would say run with it for 2-3 months and then retest.

As illustrated here (and in this prior review), we have some objectivity in evaluating the effectiveness of microbiome modifiers between samples — it should be helpful in improved picks over a series of samples.

Microbiome Fishing Expeditions

  • If we review genus as an ethnic groups, we find over 3,365+ groups – each distinctive
    • Species are the equivalent of small business, community groups – we have 10,567+
    • Strains could be viewed as the individuals.
    • Some strains (people) are criminals and some community leaders
  • To understand what is happening in the cities, we need to get data / characteristics
    • What foods are sent to the city
    • What products are exported from the city
    • What are the sources of energy for the city
    • How may people come in or leave by ethnic groups
    • What type of waste is produced by the city
    • What types of crimes happen in the city

From this information, we may gain insight into how to administer and change the city.

The statistics available about the Microbiome City

All of the above, except for End Products(Obsolete). This information is obtained from lab studies cultivating bacteria. Data is really hit and miss.

All of the other statistics is done using gene data from KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Once the bacteria has been sequenced, all of this information can be computed. This works for both bacteria that can be cultured and those (most) that cannot be cultured in a lab.

Where do you find this data on Microbiome Prescription?

Outliers are grouped to help analysis by bringing out items of probable significance
To see ALL of the data go here

Seeing changes between Samples

When you have multiple samples, this line will appear. Multiple Samples Comparison is the button

These reports are the same as above – except you have numbers from different samples side by side

All of the choices available above are listed here.

What is the difference between Outliers and Full Report?

Outliers ( AKA out of range) gives you the ability to filter by percentile OR use the Kaltoft-Moldrup Limits

The full range gives a much larger list (often hundreds) with filtering limited to the Search box on the page.

Above is for an individual sample — so you are given a list of your samples and the page will automatically update when you change samples.

For the multiple sample compare, you have already selected the samples and cannot change them from the page. You can go back to the selection page and pick different samples.

For multiple sample outliers — if one sample has an outlier, then the values of other samples will also be shown. The outliers are color coded:


A series of samples overtime from a CFS/ME person

The reader provide the following history (shortened)

Person’s Narrative

Sample BiomeSight:2021-02-24 In addition to my usual CFS symptoms I had a lot of trouble with gastritis. I was taking Slippery Elm, Marshmallow root, DGL, melatonin, magnesium, probiotic Femme UT. I mostly avoided other supplements due to gastric issues. When the results came back I was only able to eat a few foods, so I couldn’t really follow the suggestions. I decided to wait until my stomach got better and retest.

Sample BiomeSight:2021-08-23 Taken after I’ve been on PPIs for 3 months. I haven’t been eating dairy for months which decreased B. Wadsworthia somewhat. I ate a lot of soy milk and soy yogurt. Mostly gluten-free, but eating lots of oatmeal. The combination of PPIs and yogurt made Streptococcus Thermophilus very high. The supplements at the time were melatonin, magnesium, zinc carnosine, d3 & k2, vit A, Omega 3, probiotic Femme UT, occasional Slippery Elm to calm the stomach.

After I got results back I started taking:
– Miyarisan (Kegg AI Computed Probiotics),
– glycine (Kegg AI Computed Supplements),
– inulin, burdock root, L. Rhamnosus, L.Reuterii, almonds, oregano tea (suggestions from Targeted bacteria based on symptom Impaired memory & concentration).
I alternated modifiers so I wasn’t taking all of them all of the time.

I stopped:
– vit A and Slippery Elm (suggestions from Targeted bacteria based on symptom Impaired memory & concentration)
– yogurt (high S. Thermophilus)- oatmeal (it seemed to cause hypoglycemia. Replaced with tsampa – roasted barley flour)

Interestingly, Kegg AI Computed Supplements at level <15% reported Iron and 6 weeks later I was found to be anemic. That was an excellent prediction! I wish I would have gone and tested my iron status right away.

Sample BiomeSight:2021-11-28 Still on PPIs. Taken one month after I started taking prescription iron pills and lactulose to help with resulting constipation. Still eating soy milk daily, but no dairy, no yogurt. Taking more supplements at this point.


Reading the history, my first question is to see if the predicted shifts from doing PPI (Proton Pump Inhibitors) is reflected between samples. Keep in mind that there are other microbiome compounders (i.e. other eating pattern changes). To this end, I’ve created a new page where you can pick a before, after and a modifier.

New page shows when you have multiple samples. It will be there after an upload (regardless of membership status)
Before sample vs first sample after PPI started
before sample until latest sample

What is interesting to note is that the impact diminished overtime (80 -> 65). This agrees with my base model that rotation and re-testing is essential.

We can do combinations, for example PPI and melatonin between first and second sample. We lack studies on combinations and thus have to resort to this experiential approach to see how well predictions agree with actuals.

At the bottom of the pages, you get the details:

If a substance did not cause more improvements(Agrees versus Differs), then they are possible items to drop. Remember, the suggestions are theoretical prediction looking at many hundreds of bacteria. This allows you to objectively measure whether they worked well for you! They will not work for every one because of differences in DNA, diet, gender, age etc. I spot checked items like Slippery Elm (46.8 Agrees, 27 Differs), Miyarisan (KEGG Suggestion) (40.8 Agrees, 15 Differs) and was pleased with the results.

Looking at the next Step

Above, we (to my delight) verify that the suggestions are causing changes in the predicted direction for this person (based on their microbiome samples). Looking at predicting symptoms, we had 72% correct for the top 11 items ( So where do we go from here? Remember, the goal is to focus on the bacteria that likely contributed the most to the dysfunction (often high ones)

  • From KEGG, the best probiotic is Sun Wave Pharma/Bio Sun Instant, if it is available. It has several species suggested in it.
  • Looking at KEGG Products out of range — 7 were too low and 190 were too high. We are looking at an overproduction scenario.

I looked thru the predicted symptoms bacteria and there were a lot of secondary matches(shown with a # but very few direct matches. When we moved on to KM outliers, we had 25 items listed — 2 families and 5 genus with these items of considerable note — both for high percentile and high numbers:

So I did a hand picked with just these more extreme values. I tossed in everything we had. No prescription items showed up on the to take, but many (and a few b-vitamins) showed up on the to avoid list.

In terms of typical ME/CFS, we found only two matches, both two high:  Bacteroides ovatus and Streptococcus. In terms of this small subset — only one item was above 0.29 — Human milk oligosaccharides (prebiotic, Holigos, Stachyose) with iron and B-12 being on the to take list.

We also note that the Unhealth Bacteria page, was full of Streptococcus

I tossed all of these into our hand-picked list and ask for new suggestions — the suggestions did not change expect for minor shifts of confidence.

Bottom Line

Two probiotics:  lactobacillus plantarum (probiotics) and the mixture Sun Wave Pharma/Bio Sun Instant. I see the recommendation leads to the same type of breakfast that is regular for me: Barley/Oats with inulin and wheat bran. For all of the items, make sure you check the dosage links (where available)

Click on the rulers to see what dosages have been used in clinical studies (thus can be assumed to be safe)

Chemistry of the Microbiome

The Microbiome is like a city full for billions of bacteria (people).

  • Some items produced in the city are consumed in the city – for example, Bakery products
  • Some items are imported into the city – for example, Wheat to make bread
  • Some items are exported from the city – for example, factory goods

Similarly there are compounds / chemicals in the microbiome. Some imports may be coming from food or cells in the body, products out to be going to cells or into urine, some products are consumed by other bacteria

The intent of this new page is to attempt to get estimates of these flows. These are crude estimates because they depend on two things — the bacteria species identified by the lab (different labs detect different species) and whether the full genes of each species is in KEGG.

The flow is simple as illustrated below

  1. The Stool sample is sent to a lab
  2. The lab process it and produces a data file (“Fastq”)
  3. The lab runs it thru software that produces a list of bacteria and their count
  4. We then take all of the species reported that are found in KEGG and compute the count of enzymes. We assume one bacteria produces one enzyme.
  5. From the totals of each enzymes, we go back to KEGG to find what is consumed (Substrate) by the enzyme, and what is produced by the enzymes. Again, we assume 1 unit of compound is produced for 1 unit of enzyme.
  6. We total all of the compound being produced and consumed.
  7. We then get the distribution over all samples and compute a percentile value for each.

Needless to say, that is a lot of calculations — a lot!

The New Page

The page is under Component Analysis as shown below

This page will be restricted in 2022, at present, all may use it.

When the page for a sample loads, you may be missing the percentiles. This is done because of the amount of calculation involved, it is not done automatically.

On First Load

At the top of the page is a button, just click it and wait a little while and the percentiles will appear

After clicking

Use the search button to find items that you are interested in, For example, in how much of D-Lactic and L-Lactic acid is being produced and consumed. High D-Lactic acid is associated with brain fog. Remember that comparison must be done with the same lab software identifying.

2017-11-06 UBIOME
2018-03-16 UBIOME
2019-03-19 UBIOME
2019-10-20 Thryve
2020-02-23 Thryve
2021-10-05 Thryve

Bottom Line

This is likely a useful tool for tracking changes between samples. Go to it and add comments when you find interesting things.

My problem with Kefir….

This is similar to Kombucha, see my prior post from 2017 here. Every species (and strains) have different impacts and I prefer to reduce the risk of adverse outcomes.

“Similarly to milk-derived kefir, the exact microbial composition of kombucha cannot be given because it varies. “

 A Review on Kombucha Tea—Microbiology, Composition, Fermentation, Beneficial Effects, Toxicity, and Tea Fungus [2014]

Great good can come from Kefir, for example, the probiotic Lactobacillus Kefiri LKF01 (DSM 32079) LKEF. It was discovered after investigating dozens of different Kefirs. See this 2017 post on this probiotic.

Kefir can contain many different species and families — including [2008] [2021] [2015] [2011] [2006]

  • Lactobacillus kefiri (occasionally)
  • Lactobacillus  kefiranofaciens
  • Leuconostoc mesenteroides 
  • Lactococcus lactis 
  • Liquorilactobacillus nagelii,
  • Lentilactobacillus hilgardii/diolivorans
  • Lacticaseibacillus casei/paracasei,
  • Lactobacillus perolens,
  • Lactobacillus parafarraginis,
  • Lactobacillus diolivorans,
  • Oenococcus oeni 
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus,
  • Streptococcus thermophilus, 
  • Sphingobacterium

The grains used, the processes and environment, all contribute to variable outcomes.

Bottom Line

I have a strong bias in wanting to know precisely what bacteria are being taken. “Fermented drinks are good” is gospel for many…. for me, it is randomness… some people will do good and some will not – often dependent on the brand, or how it was fermented….. I am risk adverse…

Kefir grains could come salted with specific bacteria (to increase the odds) — but I would expect that the provider would provide information on the strains and links to the literature for each.


Microbiome Modelled Suggestions for Long Covid

This list (with live time updates as data is added) on Microbiome Prescription web site. All suggestions from this page should be reviewed by your medical professionals. These are based on modelling and not clinical studies. These are based on family and lower taxonomy ranks (genus,species,strains) reported in studies on US National Library of Medicine.

In general, people report improvements from at least half of the items on the top of the list for other conditions. Many items listed have been reports in clinical studies to help a significant percentage of patients.

Items with a low bad impact and high good impact are likely the best to start with (i.e. Sumac(Rhus coriaria) , laminaria hyperborea( tangle/cuvie – seaweed)  thyme  (oil), coriander oil  , peppermint  oil). Many of these suggestions are similar to those for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Long COVID sibling). Suggestions for ME/CFS agreed with clinical studies results.

Reversion of Gut Microbiota during the Recovery Phase in Patients with Asymptomatic or Mild COVID-19: Longitudinal Study.
Microorganisms (Microorganisms ) Vol: 9 Issue 6 Pages:
Pub: 2021 Jun 7 Epub: 2021 Jun 7 Authors Kim HN , Joo EJ , Lee CW , Ahn KS , Kim HL , Park DI , Park SK , if(open==true){ }
Summary Html Article Publication
The gut microbiome of COVID-19 recovered patients returns to uninfected status in a minority-dominated United States cohort.
Gut microbes (Gut Microbes ) Vol: 13 Issue 1 Pages: 1-15
Pub: 2021 Jan-Dec Epub: Authors Newsome RC , Gauthier J , Hernandez MC , Abraham GE , Robinson TO , Williams HB , Sloan M , Owings A , Laird H , Christian T , Pride Y , Wilson KJ , Hasan M , Parker A , Senitko M , Glover SC , Gharaibeh RZ , Jobin C , if(open==true){ }
Summary Html Article Publication
Gut Microbiota May Not Be Fully Restored in Recovered COVID-19 Patients After 3-Month Recovery.
Frontiers in nutrition (Front Nutr ) Vol: 8 Issue Pages: 638825
Pub: 2021 Epub: 2021 May 13 Authors Tian Y , Sun KY , Meng TQ , Ye Z , Guo SM , Li ZM , Xiong CL , Yin Y , Li HG , Zhou LQ , if(open==true){ }
Summary Html Article Publication
Gut Microbiota Interplay With COVID-19 Reveals Links to Host Lipid Metabolism Among Middle Eastern Populations.
Frontiers in microbiology (Front Microbiol ) Vol: 12 Issue Pages: 761067
Pub: 2021 Epub: 2021 Nov 5 Authors Al Bataineh MT , Henschel A , Mousa M , Daou M , Waasia F , Kannout H , Khalili M , Kayasseh MA , Alkhajeh A , Uddin M , Alkaabi N , Tay GK , Feng SF , Yousef AF , Alsafar HS , if(open==true){ }
Summary Publication
The sources used for microbiome shifts

Best prediction is done when using a 16s microbiome result for the patient

NetModifier2Good ImpactBad Impact
24bacillus subtilis (probiotics)3410
21lactobacillus casei (probiotics)309
19resistant starch3415
19bifidobacterium longum (probiotics)223
18pediococcus acidilactic (probiotic)213
17brown rice236
17oregano (origanum vulgare, oil) |247
16almonds/ almond skins182
15vitamin d2914
14whole-grain barley228
14wheat bran2410
14dietary fiber140
14lactobacillus plantarum,xylooligosaccharides,(prebiotic) (probiotics)162
14lactobacillus reuteri (probiotics)2713
14fish oil173
14proline (amino acid)195
14bifidobacterium bifidum (probiotics)2511
13lactobacillus paracasei (probiotics)229
13lactobacillus acidophilus (probiotics)229
13Human milk oligosaccharides (prebiotic, Holigos, Stachyose)2815
12raffinose(sugar beet)164
12lauric acid(fatty acid in coconut oil,in palm kernel oil,)175
12high fiber diet208
12rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)2513
12Conjugated Linoleic Acid142
12Burdock Root164
11pea (fiber, protein)165
11fructo-oligosaccharides (prebiotic)2615
11lactobacillus rhamnosus (probiotics)2312
11lactobacillus rhamnosus gg (probiotics)198
11lactobacillus casei shirota (probiotics)132
11bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum,(probiotics)154
11bifidobacterium infantis,(probiotics)176
11saccharomyces boulardii (probiotics)209
11oligofructose (prebiotic)121
11whole grain,bran110
10vsl#3 (probiotics)144
10naringenin(grapefruit) (Flavonoid)133
10lupin seeds (anaphylaxis risk, toxic if not prepared properly)2010
10red wine2313
10broad beans2010
10lactobacillus plantarum (probiotics)2818
10inulin (prebiotic)2616
10enterococcus faecium (probiotic)155
9Goji (berry,juice)156
9fruit/legume fibre167
9oligosaccharides (prebiotic)123
9bifidobacterium adolescentis,(probiotics)123
9bifidobacterium animalis lactis (probiotics)167
9vitamin a2314
8trametes versicolor( mushroom)102
8red chiles (Capsicum)80
8xylooligosaccharide (prebiotic)91
8trametes versicolor(Turkey tail mushroom)102
8persimmon tannin91
8resistant maltodextrin168
8mediterranean diet2113
8omega-3 fatty acids146
8palm kernel meal124
8bifidobacterium catenulatum,(probiotics)102
8bacillus subtilis natto (probiotics)91
8cinnamon (oil. spice)2113
8high resistant starch124
8green tea146
8jerusalem artichoke (prebiotic)113
8ketogenic diet1810
8Acacia Gum91
8bacillus,lactobacillus,streptococcus,saccharomyces probiotic80
8sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (red sea weed)113
8brown algae113
7plantago asiatica l.125
7Codonopsis pilosula70
7rosa rugosa114
7dietary phytoestrogens (isoflavones)125
7sialyllactose (oligosaccharide ) (prebiotic)114
7polygonatum kingianum(Orange Flower Solomon’s Seal.)70
7arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (prebiotic)2013
7bacillus pumilus92
7lactobacillus gasseri (probiotics)169
7foeniculum vulgare (Fennel)125
7black raspberries125
7arabinogalactan (prebiotic)81
7garlic (allium sativum)2013
7methyl gallate103
7polysorbate 80114
7Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin)70
6vitamin b2(Riboflavin)71
6germinated barley food-stuff60
6schinus molle (herb)71
6raw potato starch104
6sesame cake/meal71
6safflower oil71
6chicory (prebiotic)82
6chrysanthemum morifolium126
6fibre-rich macrobiotic ma-pi 2 diet137
6lactobacillus salivarius (probiotics)1610
6lactobacillus brevis (probiotics)93
6Lactobacillus Johnsonii (probiotic)126
6Oyster Mushroom71
6grape fiber60
6chondrus crispus (red sea weed)93
5xylaria hypoxylon (fungi)72
5lactobacillus sakei (probiotics)50
5purple sweet potatoes94
5Whole Milk61
5brassica juncea94
5galla rhois83
5lactobacillus acidophilus,cellobiose (probiotics)61
5gum arabic (prebiotic)61
5chamomile (chamaemelum nobile)83
5bacillus (probiotics)50
5navy bean1510
5bifidobacterium lactis bb12 (probiotics)105
5green-lipped mussel116
5salt (sodium chloride)83
4saccharomyces cerevisiae (probiotics)95
4sesuvium portulacastrum herb51
4resveratrol (grape seed/polyphenols/red wine)2420
4tannic acid106
4pea protein73
4mutaflor escherichia coli nissle 1917 (probiotics)51
4moderate-protein moderate-carbohydrate51
4rosa canina40
4plantain bananas40
4bifidobacterium longum bb536 (probiotics)139
4black beans73
4glucose (sugar)40
4koji aspergillus oryzae51
4laminaria digitata(oarweed – seaweed)95
4Psyllium (Plantago Ovata Husk)139
4Bifidobacterium animalis40
4punicic acid40
4Vitamin E40
4Vitamin B40
4western diet40
4allium cepa40
4Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum)40
4Spearmint(mentha spicata)40
4Mango ginger(curcuma amada)40
4cinnamomum zeylanicum40
4cinnamomum tamala40
4bifidobacterium breve (probiotic)62
4low protein diet128
4rosehip tea51
4pomegranate blossom tea51
4grape polyphenols139
4hypericum scabrum herb51
4high amylose cornstarch40
4tabebuia impetiginosa (taheebo) bark51
4vitex negundo (herb)40
3nigella sativa seed (black cumin)52
3whole-grain wheat52
3bifidobacterium longum,lactobacillus helveticus (probiotics)52
3White-leaved Savory(micromeria fruticosa)52
3Agavins (agave sugar)74
3avocado peel41
3Slippery Elm3027
3Gallic acid41
3Ajwain (trachyspermum ammi)63
3Dendrobium officinale74
3lactobacillus fermentum (probiotics)107
3low animal protein diet41
3fraxinus angustifolia (narrow-leafed ash)30
3capsaicin (hot pepper)41
3coriander oil74
3enterococcus durans (probiotics)41
3aspartame (sweetner)96
3animal-based diet1411
3polymannuronic acid1714
3momordia charantia(bitter melon, karela, balsam pear, or bitter gourd)52
3low processed foods diet41
3lychee fruit (nephelium longan)30
3xylan (prebiotic)1310
3sunflower oil41
3syzygium aromaticum (clove)74
3galacto-oligosaccharides (prebiotic)1916
2oolong tea polyphenols31
2oolong teas31
2tomato powder31
2vitamim e20
2oligofructose-enriched inulin (prebiotic)119
2oregano essential oil31
2paenibacillus polymyxa (prescript assist) (probiotics)31
2olea europaea (olive leaf)53
2satureia montana(Winter savory)31
2abies alba mill. (silver fir)31
2bioflorin,enterococcus faecium sf 68,(probiotics)31
2bacopa monnieri20
2carum carvi (Caraway)31
2choline deficiency20
2chitooligosaccharides (prebiotic)1412
2chaga (mushroom)20
2lemon oil20
2lemongrass oil53
2lactobacillus helveticus,lactobacillus rhamnosus (probiotics)20
2rice bran64
2Konjaku flour64
2lactobacillus helveticus20
2bacillus laterosporus (probiotic)64
2Immortelle(helichrysum italicum)31
2milk thistle(silybum marianum)20
2bandicoot berry(leea indica)20
2Bacillus clausii (Probiotics)42
2bifidobacterium (probiotics)64
2xylopia aethiopica (herb)20
2cylicodiscus gabunensis (mimosaceae)20
2d-fructose (sugar)20
2lactobacillus paracasei,lactobacillus acidophilus,bifidobacterium animalis (probiotics)31
1galactose (milk sugar)1211
1hydrogenated palm oil10
1bifidobacterium lactis,streptococcus thermophilus probiotic87
1galla chinensis (herb)109
1Sijunzi decoction43
1Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate)76
1Fiber, total dietary32
1Cacoa flavonoids10
1lactobacillus kefiri (NOT KEFIR)1110
1grape seed extract87
1doenjang (fermented bean paste)21
1aloe vera21
1ashwagandha (withania somnifera)32
1bacillus licheniformis,(probiotics)109
1salvia officinalis (sage)10
1plant-rich diet10
1peppermint (spice, oil)54
1moderate-carbohydrate diet10
1magnolia bark21
1peganum harmala (rue)21
1thyme oil10
1thyme (thymol, thyme oil)87

The site also provide prescription suggestions with those below being the highest ranked.

Note: There are different from those suggested for ME/CFS