Fungi: Trichosporonaceae / Trichosporonales / Tremellomycetes / Basidiomycota

Fungi and the microbiome finally got on my radar. Apologies to some, but there is a lot of different items on the microbiome radar screen.

“Small intestinal fungal overgrowth (SIFO)… Two recent studies showed that 26 % (24/94) and 25.3 % (38/150) of a series of patients with unexplained GI symptoms had SIFO. …. but evidence for eradication is lacking.”Small intestinal fungal overgrowth [2015]

As I did with taxa years ago, I will be writing a blog on each one reviewing the literature. If there is sufficient data at the end, I may add it as a feature to Microbiome Prescription.

One of my reader’s results motivated this choice. The data from a Thorne Microbiome Test. Almost 9 out of 10 people have less of it. The person also has a Crohn’s diagnosis.

Preventive for Fungi

The following are suggestions:

  • Reduce and keep your living space humidity at 50% or lower (typically done by dehumidifiers). EPA recommends 30-50% [EPA]; we set our dehumidifiers for 35%.

Moisture parameters and fungal communities associated with gypsum drywall in buildings [2015]

Remember, all fungi are not the same. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices [2017] . Additionally, some spices are known to have Fungal Contamination of some Common Spices [2022] and Fungi and aflatoxins associated with spices in the Sultanate of Oman [2002] which included cloves (often deem an antifungal).

Basic Information

  • Basidiomycota is the second most species‐rich phylum of Fungi with nearly 32,000 described species” [2019]

Members of the Trichosporonaceae show a global distribution and have been recovered from a wide range of environments. Cutaneotrichosporon spp. are most frequently associated with a human host, and may represent opportunistic human pathogens. Trichosporon spp. form part of the natural microflora on human and animal skin and result in a non-serious mycosis of hair termed white piedra3. However, they have also been implicated in trichosporonosis, a collection of opportunistic infections caused by a number of species, including Trichosporon asahiiT. asteroides and T. ovoide

Genomic insights into the lifestyles, functional capacities and oleagenicity of members of the fungal family Trichosporonaceae [2020]
  • Trichosporonosis StatPearls [Internet].
    • “Invasive Trichosporon infections are common in immunosuppressed patients, such as those with hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, invasive trichosporonosis can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and the global incidence is increasing”
    • “In cases of central nervous system infection, the predominant symptoms are headache, nausea, vomiting, and fever.”
    • “Trichosporonosis has also been documented to cause peritonitis, pacemaker lead endocarditis, and pneumonia. Other rare manifestations include sinusitis in an immunocompetent patient, fungemia, and urinary tract infection in patients with diabetes mellitus, and nosocomial infection in patients with severe burns”
    • Treatment includes: itraconazole, voriconazole , fluconazole 
    • Most experts recommend combination therapy consisting of amphotericin and voriconazole/5-flucytosine.