Technical Note: Percentile versus Percentage

The use of percentile when you have a very non-normal distribution does an elegant transformation of the data to a continuous uniform distribution. Our earlier note was based on statistical differences from the mean of the percentages; I repeated the process but used the mean of the percentiles.

One should be aware that for a specific bacteria, the mean(percentage) may have less then mean(percentile) being significant for some bacteria; while the mean(percentile) may have more than mean(percentile) being significant for other bacteria. In short, directionality is not preserved by the transformation to percentile. This is rarely the case with a normal distribution but does happen with microbiome data. It is a worthwhile exercise to understand this behavior because it is at odds with “common sense” but very true mathematically. Familiarity with the Cauchy distribution may help with the mind shift.

Bottom Line Summary

Using the percentile is slightly superior for prediction. Remember that 16% is the percentage expected from a random predictor. Remember by match, we means how often we get matches to predicted

MethodAverage Correct Prediction MatchWinner on a SymptomAverage
Taxons
Mean(Percentile)23.5%161126
Mean(Percentage)22.9%9697

The details by symptoms is below.

Symptom NamePercentile
Match
Mean
Match
Comorbid: Inflammatory bowel disease26.6925.37
Infection: Lyme26.3926.26
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Muscle Pain (i.e., sensations of pain or aching in your muscles. This does not include weakness or pain in other areas such as joints)26.3721.69
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Easily irritated26.3021.03
Neurological-Vision: Blurred Vision26.2525.09
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Tense muscles26.0526.27
Neurological: Difficulty reading25.9823.59
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Weight change25.8525.79
Immune Manifestations: Hair loss25.7622.25
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Tingling feeling25.7524.20
Post-exertional malaise: Next-day soreness after everyday activities25.7423.13
Neurological-Vision: inability to focus eye/vision25.7422.38
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Muscle weakness25.6622.68
Comorbid: Mold Sensitivity / Exposure25.6226.26
Immune: Sensitivity to smell/food/medication/chemicals25.6221.61
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: intolerance of extremes of heat and cold25.5621.52
General: Heavy feeling in arms and legs25.5323.32
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Blurred Vision25.5322.49
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty comprehending Information25.5022.24
General: Myalgia (pain)25.4924.54
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Pain in Multiple Joints without Swelling or Redness25.4422.90
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : New trouble with math25.4425.87
Neurological: Executive Decision Making (Difficulty making)25.4023.39
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Chilled or shivery25.3825.74
Neurological-Sleep: Inability for deep (delta) sleep25.3223.24
Neurological: Difficulty processing information (Understanding)25.2923.57
Post-exertional malaise: Rapid muscular fatigability,25.2821.44
Other: Sensitivity to mold25.2624.17
Comorbid: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)25.2520.96
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty falling asleep25.1721.08
Pain: Joint pain25.1723.25
Immune Manifestations: Inflammation of skin, eyes or joints25.1423.55
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty following things25.1322.84
Virus: Epstein-Barr virus25.0923.30
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Temperature lower than normal25.0722.82
Immune Manifestations: Chronic Flatus / Flatulence / gas25.0021.39
Post-exertional malaise: Mentally tired after the slightest effort24.9322.40
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Sensitivity to Alcohol24.8622.52
Neurological: Dysautonomia24.8322.95
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Muscle weakness24.8022.64
Neurocognitive: Difficulty expressing thoughts24.7520.27
Onset: 2000-201024.7221.89
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Upset stomach24.7024.95
Immune Manifestations: Inflammation (General)24.6021.97
Comorbid-Mouth: Bruxism – Jaw cleanching / Teeth grinding24.5921.65
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Chemical sensitivity24.5825.19
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty reasoning things out24.5722.94
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Confusion/disorientation24.5625.87
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Frequently loose train of thought24.5523.09
Post-exertional malaise: Difficulty reading after mild physical or mental activity24.5420.25
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Trouble expressing thoughts24.5223.70
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Shortness of breath24.4922.88
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Abnormal sensitivity to light24.4524.32
Post-exertional malaise: Physically tired after minimum exercise24.4421.70
Official Diagnosis: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS/ME)24.4420.20
Neurological-Sleep: Sleep Apnea24.4330.42
Neurocognitive: Absent-mindedness or forgetfulness24.4221.07
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Poor gut motility24.4220.04
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Slowness of thought24.4123.01
Gender: Female24.4120.35
Post-exertional malaise: Rapid cognitive fatigability,24.4021.05
Neurological: Cognitive/Sensory Overload24.3922.84
Post-exertional malaise: Inappropriate loss of physical and mental stamina,24.3920.33
Sleep: Problems falling asleep24.3719.75
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Eye pain24.3522.92
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Unrefreshing Sleep, that is waking up feeling tired24.3320.49
Neurocognitive: Unable to focus vision and/or attention24.3224.34
Immune Manifestations: Mucus in the stool24.3223.08
Immune Manifestations: Constipation24.3219.42
Physical: Work-Sitting24.3120.96
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Mood swings24.3022.58
Neurological-Sleep: Insomnia24.2720.91
Post-exertional malaise: Muscle fatigue after mild physical activity24.2621.75
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Ringing in the Ears24.2522.34
Immune Manifestations: new food sensitivities24.2521.28
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: cold extremities24.2419.68
Comorbid-Mouth: Dry Mouth24.2424.13
Neurocognitive: Feeling disoriented24.2424.51
Neuroendocrine: Alcohol intolerance24.2420.91
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Does physical activity make you feel worse24.2421.37
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty finding the right word24.2320.46
Neurological: Neuropathy24.2024.34
Comorbid: Migraine24.2024.54
Neurological: emotional overload24.2024.17
Age: 40-5024.2018.92
Immune Manifestations: Abdominal Pain24.1921.59
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Rapid muscular fatiguability24.1322.24
Post-exertional malaise: Physically drained or sick after mild activity24.0622.15
Physical: Amalgam fillings24.0622.43
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: marked weight change24.0524.83
Pain: Pain or aching in muscles24.0521.54
Autonomic Manifestations: Orthostatic intolerance24.0423.20
Neuroendocrine: Lost or gained weight without trying24.0222.19
Neurological: Impairment of concentration24.0121.29
Neuroendocrine: Feeling hot or cold for no reason24.0022.53
Onset: Sudden24.0021.03
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Absent-mindedness23.9923.34
Autonomic: Shortness of breath23.9624.04
Sleep: Unrefreshed sleep23.9618.84
Neurological: Short-term memory issues23.9620.71
Autonomic Manifestations: irritable bowel syndrome23.9422.18
Physical: Steps Per Day 4000-800023.9321.26
Autonomic Manifestations: light-headedness23.8923.75
Physical: Steps Per Day 2000-400023.8922.21
Physical: Good Air Quality23.8924.27
Autonomic Manifestations: urinary frequency dysfunction23.8925.32
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Need to have to focus on one thing at a time23.8922.37
Official Diagnosis: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)23.8825.24
Neurological-Audio: hypersensitivity to noise23.8822.04
Post-exertional malaise: General23.8720.19
Post-exertional malaise: Post-exertional malaise23.8621.48
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty staying asleep23.8322.37
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Dry Eye (Sicca or Sjogren Syndrome)23.8221.35
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Impaired Memory & concentration23.8122.76
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Fatigue23.8121.21
Neurological-Vision: photophobia (Light Sensitivity)23.8125.02
Comorbid: Restless Leg23.8025.29
General: Fatigue23.7718.39
Neurocognitive: Brain Fog23.7519.88
Comorbid: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity23.7523.15
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty recalling information23.7521.10
Immune Manifestations: medication sensitivities.23.7521.01
Comorbid: Histamine or Mast Cell issues23.7420.41
Condition: Acne23.7421.63
Neurocognitive: Difficulty understanding things23.7320.84
Autonomic Manifestations: Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)23.7322.83
Pain: Sensitivity to pain23.7226.02
Joint: Tenderness23.7224.26
Other: Sensitivity to vibrations23.6825.97
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Frequently get words or numbers in the wrong order23.6726.05
Neuroendocrine: Cold limbs (e.g. arms, legs hands)23.6721.42
Post-exertional malaise: Worsening of symptoms after mild mental activity23.6722.24
Immune Manifestations: Bloating23.6620.51
General: Headaches23.6622.25
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty retaining information23.6323.04
Autonomic: Heart rate increase after standing23.6020.51
Post-exertional malaise: Worsening of symptoms after mild physical activity23.5821.27
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Forgetting what you are trying to say23.5622.10
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Post-exertional malaise, feeling worse after doing activities that require either physical or mental exertion23.5620.52
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: worsening of symptoms with stress.23.5419.94
Condition: ME/CFS with IBS23.5321.15
Comorbid: Constipation and Diarrohea (not explosions)23.5121.70
Neurocognitive: Slowness of thought23.5121.35
Condition: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder23.4927.09
Comorbid-Mouth: TMJ / Dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint syndrome23.4822.93
Autonomic: Dizziness or fainting23.4725.31
Age: 30-4023.4622.59
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Slow to react23.4423.99
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Concern with driving23.4325.82
Immune Manifestations: recurrent flu-like symptoms23.4322.86
Comorbid: Sleep Apnea Diagnosis23.4127.83
Neurological-Audio: Tinnitus (ringing in ear)23.4120.98
Autonomic Manifestations: palpitations23.4120.80
Immune Manifestations: Thick blood / Hypercoagulation23.3825.82
Neurocognitive: Problems remembering things23.3521.13
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Dizziness23.3524.74
Immune Manifestations: general malaise23.3319.84
Sleep: Problems staying asleep23.3320.03
Physical: Long term (chronic) stress23.3022.22
Immune Manifestations: tender lymph nodes23.2824.97
Sleep: Daytime drowsiness23.2721.07
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Abdomen pain23.2623.29
Neurocognitive: Can only focus on one thing at a time23.2521.20
Pain: Aching of the eyes or behind the eyes23.2324.86
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Depression23.2025.30
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Anxiety/tension23.1721.78
Immune Manifestations: Diarrhea23.1722.26
Neurocognitive: Difficulty paying attention for a long period of time23.1519.57
Official Diagnosis: Fibromyalgia23.1125.73
Physical: Breastfed23.1022.23
Official Diagnosis: Autism23.0922.72
Official Diagnosis: Irritable Bowel Syndrome23.0719.64
General: Anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure)23.0625.13
Age: 60-7023.0625.48
Neurological: High degree of Empathy before onset23.0325.21
Blood Type: O Positive23.0122.58
Physical: Steps Per Day < 200023.0021.24
Condition: ME/CFS without IBS22.9921.23
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Headaches22.9922.21
Onset: Gradual22.9320.90
Immune Manifestations: Alcohol Intolerant22.9321.25
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Nausea22.9325.28
Immune: Viral infections with prolonged recovery periods22.9223.79
Neurological: Word-finding problems22.9121.30
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Allergies22.9121.39
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Air Hunger22.9023.25
Autonomic Manifestations: Cortisol disorders or irregularity22.8726.22
Official Diagnosis: Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever)22.8520.06
Comorbid: Methylation issues (MTHFR)22.8524.23
Official Diagnosis: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)22.7624.27
Joint: Stiffness and swelling22.7525.95
General: Depression22.7322.15
Official Diagnosis: Mast Cell Dysfunction22.7123.61
Gender: Male22.7118.29
Age: 50-6022.6621.94
Autonomic: Inability to tolerate an upright position22.6325.39
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Racing heart22.5924.64
Condition: Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity22.5923.05
Comorbid: High Anxiety22.5622.02
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Hot or Cold spells22.4922.72
Sleep: Waking up early in the morning (e.g. 3 AM)22.4521.76
Physical: Northern European22.4421.58
Onset: less than 04 years since onset22.4322.47
Immune: Recurrent Sore throat22.4322.38
Official Diagnosis: COVID19 (Long Hauler)22.4120.18
General: Sinus issues with headaches22.4121.48
Blood Type: A Positive22.3821.61
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Sore Throat22.3725.17
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Walking up early in the morning (e.g. 3AM)22.3721.03
Immune: Tender / sore lymph nodes22.3724.62
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Need to nap during each day22.3721.23
Age: 20-3022.2719.37
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Feel unsteady on feet22.2623.61
Autonomic: Irregular heartbeats22.2523.87
Onset: 2010-202022.2520.01
Physical: Tonsils removed22.2224.24
Autonomic: Nausea22.1722.59
Onset: less than 32 years since onset22.1526.14
Official Diagnosis: Autoimmune Disease22.1523.09
Physical: Pets22.1422.14
Condition: Generalized anxiety disorder22.1327.21
Comorbid: Mood Swings22.1325.38
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Feeling like you have a temperature22.0925.22
Comorbid: Hypothyroidism22.0722.74
Neurological-Sleep: Chaotic diurnal sleep rhythms (Erratic Sleep)22.0325.54
Autonomic: Ocassional Tachycardia (Rapid heart beat)22.0222.86
Comorbid: Fibromyalgia22.0124.58
Immune: Chronic Sinusitis21.9522.83
Official Diagnosis: Hypercholesterolemia (High Cholesterol)21.9428.51
Sleep: Need to nap daily21.9222.57
Neurological: Joint hypermobility21.8822.12
Autonomic Manifestations: exertional dyspnea21.7926.96
Pain: Myofascial pain21.7525.77
Autonomic Manifestations: nausea21.7122.62
Neurological-Sleep: Night Sweats21.7026.96
Immune: Flu-like symptoms21.6621.85
Physical: Organic Diet21.6223.80
Neuroendocrine: Temperature fluctuations throughout the day21.6025.29
Neurological: Myoclonic jerks or seizures21.4922.89
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: subnormal body temperature21.4324.68
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Night sweats21.3327.05
Neurological-Sleep: Vivid Dreams/Nightmares21.3126.39
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: sweating episodes20.9923.42
Neurological: Confusion20.9124.86
Comorbid-Mouth: Gingivits / Gum Disease20.8327.31
Neuroendocrine: Feeling like you have a high temperature20.8125.65
Autonomic Manifestations: bladder dysfunction20.5925.96
Onset: less than 02 years since onset20.5323.60
Onset: less than 16 years since onset20.4121.35
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Painful menstrual periods20.2122.90
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Rash20.1223.90
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Paraesthesia (tingling burning of skin)19.7522.42
Official Diagnosis: Depression19.5224.34
Physical: Eastern European19.4221.21
Neurological: Disorientation18.8427.99
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Excessive adrenaline18.1625.52
Neurological: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)16.8927.39

Looking at the bacteria taxons identified by each, we also see difference

Symptom NamePercentile TaxonsMean Taxons
Age: 20-30131100
Age: 30-4024561
Age: 40-50202138
Age: 50-6011291
Age: 60-7045124
Autonomic Manifestations: bladder dysfunction21125
Autonomic Manifestations: Cortisol disorders or irregularity51126
Autonomic Manifestations: exertional dyspnea39113
Autonomic Manifestations: irritable bowel syndrome19594
Autonomic Manifestations: light-headedness110121
Autonomic Manifestations: nausea99105
Autonomic Manifestations: Orthostatic intolerance126128
Autonomic Manifestations: palpitations155122
Autonomic Manifestations: Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)139145
Autonomic Manifestations: urinary frequency dysfunction9897
Autonomic: Dizziness or fainting93132
Autonomic: Heart rate increase after standing175155
Autonomic: Inability to tolerate an upright position68115
Autonomic: Irregular heartbeats63114
Autonomic: Nausea7391
Autonomic: Ocassional Tachycardia (Rapid heart beat)134100
Autonomic: Shortness of breath155107
Blood Type: A Positive9397
Blood Type: O Positive111106
Comorbid-Mouth: Bruxism – Jaw cleanching / Teeth grinding16597
Comorbid-Mouth: Dry Mouth132121
Comorbid-Mouth: Gingivits / Gum Disease27105
Comorbid-Mouth: TMJ / Dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint syndrome71106
Comorbid: Constipation and Diarrohea (not explosions)11993
Comorbid: Fibromyalgia8080
Comorbid: High Anxiety16797
Comorbid: Histamine or Mast Cell issues22682
Comorbid: Hypothyroidism116103
Comorbid: Inflammatory bowel disease8683
Comorbid: Methylation issues (MTHFR)10699
Comorbid: Migraine9398
Comorbid: Mold Sensitivity / Exposure11479
Comorbid: Mood Swings12372
Comorbid: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity8568
Comorbid: Restless Leg10077
Comorbid: Sleep Apnea Diagnosis69114
Comorbid: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)149100
Condition: Acne12875
Condition: Generalized anxiety disorder24114
Condition: ME/CFS with IBS205100
Condition: ME/CFS without IBS16187
Condition: Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity108103
Condition: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder8480
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Abdomen pain10484
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Abnormal sensitivity to light138128
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Absent-mindedness15696
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Allergies15999
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Anxiety/tension174113
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Blurred Vision11496
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Chemical sensitivity8376
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Chilled or shivery69104
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Concern with driving7191
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Confusion/disorientation10284
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Depression12390
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty comprehending Information17387
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty falling asleep15281
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty finding the right word20595
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty following things131116
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty reasoning things out123102
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty recalling information18293
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty retaining information15096
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Difficulty staying asleep172128
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Dizziness102109
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Does physical activity make you feel worse20199
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Easily irritated18871
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Eye pain80113
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Fatigue24884
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Feel unsteady on feet31111
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Feeling like you have a temperature4492
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Forgetting what you are trying to say16983
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Frequently get words or numbers in the wrong order67108
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Frequently loose train of thought14185
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Headaches116101
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Hot or Cold spells11294
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Impaired Memory & concentration20487
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Mood swings9885
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Muscle Pain (i.e., sensations of pain or aching in your muscles. This does not include weakness or pain in other areas such as joints)16180
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Muscle weakness17699
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Nausea83114
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Need to have to focus on one thing at a time17877
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Need to nap during each day110109
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : New trouble with math1786
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Night sweats59121
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Pain in Multiple Joints without Swelling or Redness10891
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Post-exertional malaise, feeling worse after doing activities that require either physical or mental exertion21780
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Racing heart109102
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Rash4368
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Ringing in the Ears186105
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Sensitivity to Alcohol117104
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Shortness of breath109100
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Slow to react11494
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Slowness of thought17095
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Sore Throat8293
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Temperature lower than normal79112
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Tense muscles12993
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Tingling feeling12794
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Trouble expressing thoughts128101
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Unrefreshing Sleep, that is waking up feeling tired23366
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Upset stomach12190
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Walking up early in the morning (e.g. 3AM)13094
DePaul University Fatigue Questionnaire : Weight change9685
Gender: Female250100
Gender: Male26781
General: Anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure)40112
General: Depression148116
General: Fatigue29963
General: Headaches15182
General: Heavy feeling in arms and legs14987
General: Myalgia (pain)12997
General: Sinus issues with headaches7286
Immune Manifestations: Abdominal Pain15990
Immune Manifestations: Alcohol Intolerant13896
Immune Manifestations: Bloating25484
Immune Manifestations: Chronic Flatus / Flatulence / gas144113
Immune Manifestations: Constipation21891
Immune Manifestations: Diarrhea13382
Immune Manifestations: general malaise206117
Immune Manifestations: Hair loss14990
Immune Manifestations: Inflammation (General)18689
Immune Manifestations: Inflammation of skin, eyes or joints150106
Immune Manifestations: medication sensitivities.78101
Immune Manifestations: Mucus in the stool10188
Immune Manifestations: new food sensitivities13194
Immune Manifestations: recurrent flu-like symptoms102119
Immune Manifestations: tender lymph nodes80138
Immune Manifestations: Thick blood / Hypercoagulation44114
Immune: Chronic Sinusitis9391
Immune: Flu-like symptoms8899
Immune: Recurrent Sore throat11898
Immune: Sensitivity to smell/food/medication/chemicals14979
Immune: Tender / sore lymph nodes61138
Immune: Viral infections with prolonged recovery periods76139
Infection: Lyme57126
Joint: Stiffness and swelling71117
Joint: Tenderness7394
Neurocognitive: Absent-mindedness or forgetfulness19585
Neurocognitive: Brain Fog30160
Neurocognitive: Can only focus on one thing at a time21866
Neurocognitive: Difficulty expressing thoughts18467
Neurocognitive: Difficulty paying attention for a long period of time23071
Neurocognitive: Difficulty understanding things17177
Neurocognitive: Feeling disoriented12786
Neurocognitive: Problems remembering things21394
Neurocognitive: Slowness of thought19684
Neurocognitive: Unable to focus vision and/or attention168108
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Air Hunger11093
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: cold extremities19181
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Dry Eye (Sicca or Sjogren Syndrome)129110
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Excessive adrenaline3390
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: intolerance of extremes of heat and cold20257
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: marked weight change51113
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Muscle weakness142123
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Painful menstrual periods2781
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Paraesthesia (tingling burning of skin)45112
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Poor gut motility19891
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: Rapid muscular fatiguability142105
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: subnormal body temperature51145
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: sweating episodes81120
Neuroendocrine Manifestations: worsening of symptoms with stress.23586
Neuroendocrine: Alcohol intolerance12991
Neuroendocrine: Cold limbs (e.g. arms, legs hands)16684
Neuroendocrine: Feeling hot or cold for no reason13882
Neuroendocrine: Feeling like you have a high temperature2287
Neuroendocrine: Lost or gained weight without trying11696
Neuroendocrine: Temperature fluctuations throughout the day3779
Neurological-Audio: hypersensitivity to noise20385
Neurological-Audio: Tinnitus (ringing in ear)227115
Neurological-Sleep: Chaotic diurnal sleep rhythms (Erratic Sleep)63122
Neurological-Sleep: Inability for deep (delta) sleep12285
Neurological-Sleep: Insomnia19198
Neurological-Sleep: Night Sweats86106
Neurological-Sleep: Sleep Apnea68115
Neurological-Sleep: Vivid Dreams/Nightmares73107
Neurological-Vision: Blurred Vision12383
Neurological-Vision: inability to focus eye/vision93105
Neurological-Vision: photophobia (Light Sensitivity)128101
Neurological: Cognitive/Sensory Overload17280
Neurological: Confusion6372
Neurological: Difficulty processing information (Understanding)15691
Neurological: Difficulty reading13086
Neurological: Disorientation4190
Neurological: Dysautonomia151117
Neurological: emotional overload13282
Neurological: Executive Decision Making (Difficulty making)13976
Neurological: High degree of Empathy before onset6878
Neurological: Impairment of concentration18288
Neurological: Joint hypermobility6266
Neurological: Myoclonic jerks or seizures20100
Neurological: Neuropathy6796
Neurological: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)1688
Neurological: Short-term memory issues170101
Neurological: Word-finding problems19380
Official Diagnosis: Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever)11862
Official Diagnosis: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)73118
Official Diagnosis: Autism112115
Official Diagnosis: Autoimmune Disease76119
Official Diagnosis: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS/ME)263136
Official Diagnosis: COVID19 (Long Hauler)249150
Official Diagnosis: Depression56137
Official Diagnosis: Fibromyalgia48103
Official Diagnosis: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)8297
Official Diagnosis: Hypercholesterolemia (High Cholesterol)23104
Official Diagnosis: Irritable Bowel Syndrome17396
Official Diagnosis: Mast Cell Dysfunction59108
Onset: 2000-20109699
Onset: 2010-2020154106
Onset: Gradual10889
Onset: less than 02 years since onset66120
Onset: less than 04 years since onset8482
Onset: less than 16 years since onset5792
Onset: less than 32 years since onset50108
Onset: Sudden11886
Other: Sensitivity to mold10982
Other: Sensitivity to vibrations28114
Pain: Aching of the eyes or behind the eyes9194
Pain: Joint pain14094
Pain: Myofascial pain5275
Pain: Pain or aching in muscles14598
Pain: Sensitivity to pain80106
Physical: Amalgam fillings98133
Physical: Breastfed112100
Physical: Eastern European3994
Physical: Good Air Quality48111
Physical: Long term (chronic) stress167150
Physical: Northern European184120
Physical: Organic Diet2892
Physical: Pets12481
Physical: Steps Per Day < 2000133115
Physical: Steps Per Day 2000-4000117111
Physical: Steps Per Day 4000-8000102107
Physical: Tonsils removed72122
Physical: Work-Sitting18379
Post-exertional malaise: Difficulty reading after mild physical or mental activity15895
Post-exertional malaise: General19782
Post-exertional malaise: Inappropriate loss of physical and mental stamina,18190
Post-exertional malaise: Mentally tired after the slightest effort14479
Post-exertional malaise: Muscle fatigue after mild physical activity17690
Post-exertional malaise: Next-day soreness after everyday activities14090
Post-exertional malaise: Physically drained or sick after mild activity17389
Post-exertional malaise: Physically tired after minimum exercise19380
Post-exertional malaise: Post-exertional malaise19893
Post-exertional malaise: Rapid cognitive fatigability,15886
Post-exertional malaise: Rapid muscular fatigability,146105
Post-exertional malaise: Worsening of symptoms after mild mental activity15568
Post-exertional malaise: Worsening of symptoms after mild physical activity215100
Sleep: Daytime drowsiness17571
Sleep: Need to nap daily10588
Sleep: Problems falling asleep18193
Sleep: Problems staying asleep21073
Sleep: Unrefreshed sleep27662
Sleep: Waking up early in the morning (e.g. 3 AM)17289
Virus: Epstein-Barr virus12389

Spot checking a few, we find that more bacteria to filter by seems to result in a higher percentage of matches. Consider Females:

  • Measure: Using Percentile \ Using Mean
  • Taxons: Gender: Female 250 \ 100
  • Matches: Gender: Female 24.41% \ 20.35%

Bottom Line

The purpose of this post is to compare too methodologies. Neither appears absolutely superior to the other. For forecasting, it may be best to do each and takes the superior one. It is intended to show an alternative approach to this type of data.

The Percentile Advantage

If the lab being used provides percentiles over a diverse large population, you may not need a control group. The mean percentile of the population is 50 and the standard deviation of the population is 28.87 because we are dealing with a uniform distribution. We can then proceed to compute the mean of the percentiles of those with a condition and then compute the standard error resulting in a z-score.

The z-score will likely be a little lower than a perfect experiment because the large population will likely contain some with the condition being examined. Z-scores will actually be conservative, and the cost significantly less.

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